Chem 2A Lecture (3/23/20)

welcome to you chemistry 2A starting a few minutes here give her a
chance to come in a couple of things as you come in your microphones and stuff
should be probably muted so we don’t talk over each other also you should be
able to see a chat box bottom right there I remember it is on your screen
that’s again where you can type questions it’s probably the best way to
do so again as we wait for people come in we’ll get started talking about a
whole bunch of stuff I just in the meantime somebody wants to kind of come
people want to type into the chat so you can hear me okay that’d be good to check
everything and again it says the first time we’ll
give everybody a little bit of time to come in exit sounds like everybody can
hear me I appreciate it so again a reminder again we’ll get
started there a few more minutes to kind of come in a couple of things there on
your screen you should hopefully be able to see just a reminder that all these
online live lectures will be recorded and posted eventually on canvas or maybe
even a link over there to to your YouTube if you also get take your camera
off everybody cuz throws up a whole bunch of boxes on my screen and it’s
really hard to kind of see things on my end so if you guys could also keep the
cameras median and shut off I’d appreciate it so again it looks like a lot of people
are coming in so that’s good again as you come in your microphone
should be muted if you also keep your videos muted again they pop up all bunch
of stuff on my screen and before I know it I can’t really see anything on my
screen I appreciate it all so with that being said remember that if your
microphone should be unmuted if you want to ask question or something that way or
it gets unmuted we all could hear you so keep that in mind so as I was saying and again these were
all be recorded I know there’s a lot of things going on so if you can’t make it
to the live one or listen in to the live one it will most likely be posted up
there on a canvas site or at least a link perhaps to go watch it somewhere
maybe on YouTube or some like that but they will be posted online so again you
can watch them where you watch them if you wanted to at your convenience the
recordings typically will show everything that you see on the screen
anything that I show you three screen sharing will also show up on the screen
and in the recordings anything that I write on the screen will be captured on
those recordings as well so you know pretty much to see everything that you
see as I’m doing it if you watch those recordings back and again if you’re just coming in
please try to keep your cameras off appreciate it all right so just let me get started
again others come in hopefully everybody looks like that’s here solves the links
on canvas to get in and for those just coming in again your mic should be mute
and your video also will be muted if you do have a question or anything that you
want to hear or ask a question you can use the chat box on the bottom there of
your screen you could type it in and I will answer your questions again you
could send it to everybody you could send something privately I think to just
me or editors and it’ll be labeled that way as well in terms of the chat because
these are online and everybody’s sharing together and will be posted remember
please be respectful in any comments as you make be respectful air-based
feelings any videos and audios that are posted online again are for your own
personal use don’t go repost them anywhere else they
just really is for his class okay so as you know we moved 100% online
both the lecture and the lab as well so I saw yesterday and over the weekend
dr. Tyler was sending out some announcements to canvas my understanding
is that’s how she will continue to sort of get in contact you through our canvas
site that just opened up as well in the last week on the canvas site again she
should be able to post to you and I think I saw as well her links to her lab
sessions my understanding is and again fall in any direction that you get from
her in an announcement but my understanding is again if you have
Monday lab you would obviously go to her Monday labs meeting and if you had
Wednesday lab you would go to her Wednesday lab meeting just like you did
a person except you’ll just be doing it online I believe she’ll also post up
some maybe powerpoints or information on the labs that you’re doing and she’ll
post up some assignments so if you go to our canvas page you’ll find some new
stuff on there so towards the bottom of the module section is where mm-hmm
you’ll find the lab and again it is broken up by lab day as well so Monday
lab and Wednesday lab have a separate sort of section on there again so if we
go to our modules page here perhaps it loads so here’s our lecture information so I
made a little title everything underneath lecture here’s again where
you can find the links if you didn’t go through confer zoom to our lectures that
are live here’s also where I’m gonna be posting the lecture notes similar to the
stuff that I would normally hand out to you in class so you could go look on
here and use them however you like again if you watch the video everything won’t
be on there or if you’re want to have them take notes like normal you can so
these are some of the lecture notes that you can find and then our normal stuff
here some review material and then here’s again the lab information there’s
the Monday and the Wednesday sort of section so you want to make sure that
you get the correct section there all right and in terms of lecturing in terms
of lecturing we will continue in terms of lecture having them at our normal
time Monday and Wednesday about 7:35 and I my thought process there is just most
people were available during that time so hopefully I know things have changed
a lot for people but hopefully most of you will still be available during that
regular time so if you want to come and listen to the lecture live during that
time 7:35 to 9:00 I would highly recommend you do so again that’s gonna
give you an opportunity to hear live also give you an opportunity if you did
have any type of questions or anything like that that you’ll be able to ask
those questions and get them answered and again excuse me the chat box it’s
probably the best way to sort of ask those if I see a message come through I
will read sort of the question and that way everybody know the question but I
think everybody will see it if you send it to everybody and then we can kind of
answer questions and ask questions that way I think that’s probably the best
thing than using the mic so again we don’t have everybody sort of talking
over each other any question any questions on that now
in terms of in terms of the the exam that we did have scheduled for this week
it has been postponed to Monday I believe I just when I scheduled it for
and we will take it it obviously will also be in an online format so as of now
my thought on that is you’re going to take it most likely through canvas so
you’ll have a certain amount of time to take the exam on Monday it’ll probably
open up somewhere around when lecture starts maybe 7:35 in the morning and we
have some time to take it you also have a time limit to take it and I think
there will be a component where there will be questions where you need to show
your work so you’ll need to kind of write your work down and then upload
your work to me through canvas so at least I could give you some partial
credit just in case you know the answer that you give is wrong and stuff like
that so as of now that I think that is sort of how the test is gonna be I’ll be
done through canvas you know answer the question is your canvas and you will
sort of have to upload your kind of work like you normally would have to show you
work yeah I believe I moved it to Monday of next week so I’m not sure what day
we’re at were 23 so probably like the 30th a March it’s when I think the exam
first exam will be taking place and again as the week goes on I’ll post some
more information about it up on canvas but that is my guess as to what will
happen in terms of the exam any questions on the exam or anything like
that I think I also moved the online homework in terms of one is due but you
should should hopefully have that done by now or at least get it done make sure
that you do complete that so I think it might be due might have moved originally
to the end of this week on Friday so hopefully most of you have worked
through that remember you still have the online homework that needs to be
completed so make sure that you take care of that as well any questions about
the class I was going to sort of go from this point on then
sounds about right I think I might have moved into the end of this week again
it’s been up there for the beginning of class basically so make sure that you do
finish those homework and again it will help you for the exam that’s happening
on Monday so I think somebody said it’s the 27th with make sense I think that’s
Friday so in terms of
the test again like I said it will be online so you’ll log into canvas and
they’ll be kind of an exam or a quiz where it will obviously only give you an
opportunity to enter the answer to the question is how I envisioned that
probably happening with that being said because we usually like to give you an
opportunity to kind of show your work and maybe get some partial credit but
you’ll also be required probably to do on problems where there are work to be
shown is to kind of write it on paper to write it on paper and then you’ll have
to upload those paper the exam will still be only on what it was originally
gonna be on the terms of topics so that I believe for us is chapters 1 & 2
should be the only chapters that will be on there I think we’re right in the
start or middle of 3 when we got cut off so right now again just chapters 1 & 2
like normal so if I remember that should be your sig figs your density your
conversions I believe they’re out of chapter 1 also I think chapter 2 was the
atom electrons protons neutrons atomic number mass number electron
configuration and the periodic table I believe in chapter 2 so chapter 1 and
chapter 2 will be the exam that should take place one week from today online at
our canvas site which is March thirtieth and again it will be probably given also
during our normal time period just like if you’re gonna take it in class is most
likely when it will be up there for you to take and you’ll have a obviously a
private amount of time to sort of take those exams and their questions on
anything like that any questions on the class or anything
like that the online homework is still on our
sampling site so sapling site so we’re still using that in terms of homework
for the lecture part so that has not changed so that’s the same as it was at
the beginning of the semester the online homework for each of the chapters will
be up there on that sapling site and again if I’m not mistaken I think the
entire semesters worth of homework should already be posted and available
for you to see so he should be able to see that so in terms of our canvas site
that is where you will find pretty much everything other than the lecture
homework so on the canvas site you’ll find again any type of exam review
material you’ll also find lecture notes in terms of the lecture part any type of
worksheets from this point on will be probably strictly posted on the canvas
site any type of review or cheats or anything like that for lecture review
topics will be posted up there as well so everything in terms of lecture pretty
much will be on the canvas site will now just go back to using the saplings light
for just pretty much just the online homework like we had been from the
beginning of the semester again canvas will also be the place where you could
find anything related to lab as well or anything that dr. Tyler perhaps post up
there and willl need to get to you that is where you will find all her lab stuff will be on canvas in addition to maybe somewhere
else you might have to go but she will definitely let you know in the
announcements but a majority of everything that you’ll need will be on
canvas and I believe that’s all so will you for lab where you will submit your
labs is through the canvas site as well so in the canvas site there should be a
spot that’s like a now not announcements assignments and in the assignments part
should be a part where you can upload files and those files can be uploaded in
that site and that’s how you’ll basically submit it in terms of the exam
and submitting sort of your work it’ll be done the same way there’ll be a
little spot and sort of assignment section where you could
submit your work for the exam next week and again that could be in a formatted
PDF or some file format like that PDF might be the easiest for most people I
think there’s a lot of phone apps out there maybe Adobe has one as well
that are sort of free that you could kind of take pictures of your papers and
then kind of turn it into a PDF file which might make it easier for you to
upload obviously on our canvas site other questions about anything in terms
of the class or how it’s gonna run also a reminder that my regular email
still works so if you have questions when we’re not here together are as some
time today other times throughout the day or throughout the week it always
still email me at my email and I will get back to you in terms of attendance
for the live meetings again I know there’s a lot going on for everybody so
not necessarily gonna impact your grade or anything like that but I think it’s
highly recommended that you if you can still kind of come to the live lectures
again it’s a way for you to kind of see the lectures live and if you have
questions you know it’s again a way that you can kind of get those questions
answered in the context of what we’re talking about at that moment watching it
back you may have a question obviously not have a way to sort of get that
answered at that moment while you’re watching it so if you can do it I would
HIGHLY highly recommend that you do come live or at least as long as you can hang
out here in the terms of the live broadcast so you can get those questions
answered again because of what everything that is going on if something
should happen you can’t make it to one of those live lectures then they will be
posted in some fashion my best guess now is there’ll be a
probably a link to maybe a YouTube video where you can again re watch these
recordings if you were here live you can watch them or if you weren’t able to be
here live you can see the recordings and again the nice thing about the
recordings like I said is you’ll pretty much see everything that’s on the screen
so again here you know if I were to write something on the screen are kind
of an innate and notate on the screen there something you’ll be able to really
see it and stuff like that so all this stuff that I’ll eventually kind of
scribble here on the screen as we go through these slides you’ll be able to
see in the recording so all that stuff that’s written you know
you won’t miss anything in terms of that just to make sure the screen so it works
any questions okay so I think that covers if that
covers most of everything that we’re talking about in terms of this class and
sort of how it runs so I guess you should get to actual luxury so again you
can find these these lecture notes if you sort of want to print them out or
use them you know through your computer as well while you’re watching it or
however you want to do that again I’m gonna post them up there on our canvas
site underneath the lecture part and again access to them they’ll be very
similar to the ones that you were given in class in person as we went along
so we will continue on and if I’m not mistaken we are on chapter three here
and in Chapter three we were talking about ionic compounds and and ionic
compounds we got through I think sort of Lewis thought symbols talked about sort
of drawing electron dot symbols for things that are ionic compounds so let’s
just kind of talk about a couple of things so when we talk about ionic
compounds and we talked about sort of nomenclature here’s a table that sort of
describes what happens when we talk about naming these guys and just give me
one second here I’m just gonna stop sharing for just one
second I’ll put the screen right back up okay there you go got everything back up
okay so when we were talking last time we were talking about ionic compounds
and remember that ionic compounds are really between a metal and a nonmetal and when we look at an ionic compound when were those two guys do you get
together as we talked about in that previous chapter the result is what’s
going to happen is we’re going to get a a transfer of electrons from our metal
to our nonmetal and when we get that transfer of electrons from our metal and
our nonmetal it’s gonna create basically two things is going to create a cation
from our metal and it will create an anion from our nonmetal and this is
going to be result of them gaining or losing electrons and our cation will
become positively charged our anion will become negatively charged and it again
is that attraction between the positive and the negative charge that holds that
together there’s absolutely no sharing of electrons here it’s just that
electrostatic attraction and again that electrostatic attraction is the
opposites attract so it’s the positive negative attraction that occurs and that
is what holds that together so the important part here again is no sharing
of electrons when we do have an ionic compound and when we do you talk about
those guys and we do talk about sort of naming just cations and anions when we
name cations you pretty much just use the whole name so if we had fe2 plus this would be the
iron roman numeral 2 ion we had na plus this would be the sodium ion and so
forth so when we have just our cations that are present we essentially just use
the entire name of the element and when we talk about our anions those are a little bit different those
end in the IDE so at the end there they will end with IDE so we use sort of the
first part of the name and then we will basically drop the last part and convert
it into IDE so if we come up here and we look at something like oh – – that’s
oxygen it becomes oxide if we have s – – that becomes sulfide if we have CL – it
goes from chlorine to chloride so these guys all will end in the IDE that’s a
really bad over there and we get the IDE so that’s basically how we kind of
simply name either cations or anions and again this table right here so this
shows that it shows mmm the way that we named both the cation and the anion yeah
so a question was they don’t have electrons in common yeah so we’re
talking about an ionic compound there’s absolutely no sharing of electrons that
occur there there’s just simply electrons have been transferred from the
metal to the nonmetals so that is always a case in an ionic compound the metal
will always lose those electrons because of all those periodic trends that we
talked about again they’re more apt to get rid of their electrons they don’t
really want to hang on to electrons or attract electrons and that’s opposite
for those trends for their nonmetals so if you remember on the periodic table or
nonmetals are upper right so those guys in the upper right part of the periodic
table have all those trends that we talked about that basically make them
want to gain electrons bring electrons towards themselves and basically not
give away their electrons so if you remember nonmetals have very high
ionization and which means it takes a lot of energy to
remove electrons from a nonmetal and that typically doesn’t happen while
metals on the other hand which are kind of to the left and right to the left on
the periodic table typically have low ionization energy which means it doesn’t
take a lot of energy to remove electrons when we’re talking about those metals so
that’s why we typically want a metal and nonmetal get-together
what happens is we do get that transfer of electrons from the metal to the
nonmetal and it’s not attractive force between the positive and negative that
holds out unit together and there’s absolutely no sharing of electrons in
common with them so if we look at this table over here we see again these are
all positively charged ions and if we just need a name just the cation by
itself which is our positively charged we simply just use the name of the
element and we typically would just write ion after it so for example over
here this would be the hydrogen ion the lithium ion and so forth if we were just
talking about this guy over here our h plus our li plus now over here when we
look at it for our negative guys these all and in our IDE and when it ends in
our IDE that means that is negatively charged and we still use the first part
of the name as we can see there we just really dropped that last part and put
the IDE sometimes it’s you know most of the names someone name a little bit of
the name there we have bromide from bromine chloride from chlorine so when
we put sort of simple guys together for example if we took the sodium and the
chlorine has become something like sodium chloride as to how we put them
together so again if we were just to name our negative guys this would be the
hydride ion the fluoride ion chloride ion now hydrogen there is
different it is it is essentially the only one they could kind of go both ways
so hydrogen can be plus one in certain cases which means it would be the
hydrogen ion like it is there on the left
it could also be negative one in certain cases which means it would be the
hydride typically if it is going to be negative one it will typically come
after a metal so typically if it comes after a
medal like lithium that would be something like lithium hydride in that
case as basically a combination there of lithium that’s plus one and hydrogen
there that’s minus one and that’s why they come together and would have that
name any questions on that there okay so so when we were talking about as
well last time is that when we put together something for
example like calcium and like fluorine which is minus 1 when we put these guys
together and any ionic compound when we put them together we always want to
charge the equals zero so the overall charge in the compound when we put it
together doesn’t equal zero so in this case when we look at it we have plus two
on this side I have only minus one on this side so to balance it out we
actually need not one F minus but we actually need two and that would give us
a grand total of minus two so this minus 2- and this plus two here will balance
each other out so when we put them together we will get that form of caf2
which is again calcium fluoride we’ll talk about that in just a second
same thing again if we took something like aluminum which is plus three and
oxygen which is minus two again when we put that together the common number
there is kind of six so in order to get the aluminum- to 6 we mean not one of them
but we do need to and that would get us to those guys in the formula and to get
our oxygen here to six we need not one not two but we actually
need two four and six of them so that would give us three total in terms of
the number that we need and that would give us our correct formula there for
aluminum oxide again we always want to balance a a formula here that is ionic
so although it does not although it does not here have any type of charge in this
formula of an ionic compound it does still represent two things that have a
charge it represents that you have calcium with a plus two charge that’s
your cation and it represents that you have fluoride there which
is a minus one charge and that would be your anion so always in a ionic compound
you’ll never have any charge written in the compound but again it still implies
that you have two things that does have a charge so in this case our cation
would be aluminum with a plus three charge or anion there will be oxygen
with a minus 2 charge hmm any questions on that so I think we
talked about kind of putting those guys together
ionic metal nonmetal cation anion always no charge when you put those together in
terms of the formula and you want to do that again in the simplest way to put it
together to get you know charge there’s many ways you could kind of put together
to get no charge but does need to be sort of the simplest whole number way of
putting those ions together to achieve that charge of zero and when we do write
these things both in formula and also in name-o it’s always goes cation first followed by anion so that is Beaufort
when you name it and also when you write the formula so always positive first and
negative so for example the one we had before you would not want to write it
have to see a like that although it is balanced it’s not correct in terms of
the order it should always go cation first than anion so again that’s just a
little review there of sort of ionic compounds in general how they come
together so when we talk about these guys we talked about type one guys so
that’s a type one the guy is still a ion a compound is still a metal and a
nonmetal and as we talked about it is the metal that’s really the important
part there the metal here is going to be from Group 1 group 2 group 3 are the
metal maybe zinc cadmium are silver and why all those are important is because
again they have fixed charges so because they have fixed charges and I
think the next thing I got on there is a periodic table here so this is a picture
from your book again when we look at it remember that everybody in Group one on
the periodic table will make a plus one charge everybody in group two on the
periodic table will make a plus two charge and everybody there in Group
three will make a plus three charge and to be truthful honest with you we’re
really talking about here we’re really talking about aluminum in most cases
that’s usually the one that you’ll see at a group three in addition those guys
always have fixed charges in terms of those positives they’ll never make
anything other than those charges so again you’ll never find sodium that has
a plus two charge a plus three charge it can only have pretty much a plus one
charge no matter who it sort of hooks up with or bonds to always no matter what
the case is going to be plus one now coming the other way here skipping Group
four and coming to group five we kind of go backwards again above this their case
here where we have our nonmetals and group five is going to be minus three
which is typically our nitrogen and our phosphorus we will also go group six
which is minus two and group 7 which is minus one so we sort of go in order
there we kind of go plus one plus two plus three then we skip we go backwards
minus three minus two and minus one and again those guys are also fixed in terms
of their charges in terms of the metals those guys in Group one two and three
have fixed charges but again there are a couple here in the transition metal
region that will also be fixed so zinc and cadmium hang a left over there to
silver so zinc and cadmium although their transition metals they will always
make a plus two charge so this will always be plus two this will always be
plus 2 when it does make a charge and then if you hang a left over here to
silver it will always be plus so although these guys are transition
metals they also are considered type 1 metals because they have fixed charges
so sneaking cadmium because of their fixed charges will always have those
charges so our type 1 metals again Group 1 group 2 aluminum here and then are
seeing cadmium and silver any questions all that and again a reminder if you do
you have questions as we go through you can use the chat box there to ask your
questions also I think there’s a little hand you can raise if you want me to
kind of come to you you want to verbally ask that he can’t I could undo your mic
but probably the best way again is you could type in the chat box would work
well so when we talked about type 1 guys and we talked about naming sort of type
1 guys as we talked about last time pretty much when we do have type 1 we always use the whole name of the
metal and then for the nonmetal we use the front part of the name and we add
the IDE so again some of that we will drop off in terms of the nonmetal name so if we look at something again like
our sodium chloride again na which is group 1 which means it has a fixed
charge so that’s all we have to worry about so we again would just call it
sodium chlorite and then if we had something like cacl2 for example again
CA which is calcium CL is chlorine which is a nonmetal and calcium being a metal
again it’s the calcium part that’s the most important calcium is group number 2
on the periodic table which means it has a fixed charge and this would be calcium
chloride so IDE at the end for our nonmetal whole name here for our metal
and the thing that people commonly sometimes will mess up on is this part
right here although there is a 2 you can see here it has no effect in terms of
how we name the nonmetal part so even if there’s a 2 there there’s a 3 there’s
like 500 there it would still just be called chloride so sometimes people in
this situation want to use something like dichloride because they see the 2
but you should not do that again you just simply I put IDE at the end of it
and call it chloride any questions on that so again if we did
have something like say potassium sulfide so if we’re given if we’re given
the actual name and we want to write the formula again a reminder that what we
want to look at is here and we see potassium so potassium again is Group
one which means it does have a fixed charge and that means that that should
be K with a plus one charge sulfide with the IDE here means that it has a
negative charge and sulfur being group number six means that it will have a
minus 2 charge so this again is our cation this is our anion and when we put
it together to make our ionic compound it’s always important to put it together
in a way where again we get zero now sometimes people will say you can just
do the switcheroo you can just drop the one down there you could drop the two
over there on the bottom and that does work and it works you know 98% of the
time but in some cases it may not work so you want to think about just what’s
the easiest way to get to zero so when we look at this we got a plus 1 here we
have a minus 2 here so again we do essentially need more of the plus 1 we
actually need two of them and that would give us our forma of K2S any questions
on that there so when we write up a couple here and then we’ll go over them
why don’t you think about what these guys would be so say we had barium fluoride let’s do aluminum oxide and let’s do sodium nitride let me give you a couple
minutes here why don’t you write the formulas for those and then we’ll go
over and we’ll see how everybody did and again if you have any questions feel
free to type them there in the chat box so why don’t you take a minute or two
here and write the correct formulas for these guys and then we’ll talk about it so what we’re looking for here for is
the chemical formulas for each of those to see which come up with all right so let’s take a look here so
again for this first one we see barium and we see fluoride so again we just
want to think about the two parts that make that up so for example for our
barium that is group number two so we know it has a fixed charge of plus two
our fluoride which is basically fluorine on the periodic table is group seven
which means it has a minus one charge so again when we put that together we do
need more of our fluoride we need one more to balance it out and that would
give us a formula of be a – I’m sorry to be a f2 again that tells us we have one
barium at plus two to floor eyes each at minus one gives us minus one two minus 1
which is minus two so everything is balanced out there now if we look at
we look at the next one here which is our aluminum aluminum here is group
number three on the periodic tables so it has a plus three charge oxygen again
which is group number six has a minus u charge so as we saw earlier plus 3 and
minus 2 the common number there is going to be 6 so to get aluminum to 6 we need 2
of them 2 x plus 3 is plus 6 to get our oxygen
here to 6 we need 3 of them gives us our o3 3 times minus 2 is minus 6 so we have
our plus 6 and minus 6 everything is balanced any questions on those okay so for the
last one for the last one here we have sodium and sodium is Group one so it is
plus one if I stop hitting the wrong button there and our nitride is nitrogen
on the periodic table and that’s group number five which means it has a minus
three charge so again what I’m writing here are the basic cation and anions and
their charges and that’s what you want to kind of think about when you want to
put them together so here when we look at this we have
sodium with a plus one and nitrogen there with a minus three so we actually
need more sodium in this case so we would need three of them each a plus one
gives us plus three and we would just need one of these guys at minus three
and that would give us a form of an a3 and in this case any questions on any of
those so remember that if you are asked to write the chemical form of for an
ionic compound like what we did here over here and here and also down here
anytime you write the actual chemical formula they should have no charges up
on top so there should be no charges written up here on top
you should only balance out those charges so really the only numbers that
you should ever have and then ion a compound in terms of the formula are
these subscripts so there should only be numbers on the bottom and that’s the
only numbers that you should have in there and they should definitely have no
charges when you put them together now when you’re asked maybe differently
to write the formula for a cation or anion so if you’re asked to write the
formula there for either a just the cation or the anion for example if
you’re asked to write the cation in this case over here this would be the formula
for the cation and it would need the charge because it is an ion so graphs
just to write the individual components which in this case is the anion are the
cation you would include the charge because it would just be that ion by
itself but when you combine them together they should never have any type
of charge basically written in any questions on type one and put them
together so we also talked about type two so why don’t you try to name this one
here if we look at this one this one here is K which is group 1 and
K which is potassium has a plus 1 charge CL which is group 2 you so as soon as
you see that K that is the important part here it’s always the metal when you
have that metal nonmetal and because that is Group 1 we can simply just use
the name of it and that would be something like potassium chloride again
whole name of the metal IDE there on our nonmetal why don’t you try the other two
and see what you come up with in terms of the name I will talk about in just a
second okay so again if we look at these guys
here we see we see zinc and zinc although it is not part of Group one
group two are group three it is a transition metal but it’s one of those
three transition metals that we talked about that is zinc cadmium or silver
although they are transition metal transition metals typically have a
variety of charges they can make because it has a fixed charge it’s always going
to be plus two and because it does have that fixed charge we can treat it like a
type one metal and that means for this guy we would just use the whole name of
the metal which is zinc and our sulfur becomes sulfide ID he at the end there
any questions all right then looking at our last one
here that we have we have Ca which is our calcium and again our calcium is
group number two which means it has a fixed charge of plus two and because of
that that’s pretty much all you need to go by you can then just use the whole
name there which is calcium and again the Br which is bromine drop the last
part and put the ID key at the end of it and we get something like calcium
bromide again that two on the BR has no effect in the name it would still would
call it bromine no matter if it was a two there are three there or anything
like that that’s a little review of type one that I think we were talking about
there last time we were in person with each other any questions on that okay so then as I was mentioning earlier
up there’s my morning with that should do the whole page on the bottom here
we’ll take a look at this really quick again we got Ba which is barium it’s
also gonna be group to which means it’s be a two in this case that’s a metal
that’s all we need to worry about our nonmetal which is hydrogen remember
hydrogen is a nonmetal actually comes second in this gate so this is where
hydrogen actually would be minus one and that is why there’s two of them cuz we
need two of them to get two minus two to balance out the plus two that we have
there but really again we would follow the same thing because it’s type one we
would use the whole name there of barium and in this case because hydrogen is
negative this is where we would use that name that we saw earlier which would be
barium hydride okay so now let’s maybe get to type two
so type two if we remember as well I think we got into in terms of naming
again type two is also a metal and a nonmetal
and just like type on it is the metal that’s important the metal here will be
a transition metal are just to the right on the periodic
table things like 10 lead antimony these guys although they’re
technically not transition metals they are also treated like transition metals
so let me actually pop up a periodic table really quick I’m gonna stop
sharing for just a sec all right so let’s take a look at this
periodic table here so when we’re talking about type 2 guys what we’re
talking about really is our our transition metals let’s come back so when we talk about these guys we’re
talking about our transition metals here as being type 2 again except for really
these guys here these guys are really type 1 no one right there so these guys
are basically type 1 in terms of naming but everybody else here in our
transition metal region and when I’m talking about just to the right as well
are things like lead things like tin antimony bismuth these guys are that are
to the right but kind of below the staircase that runs you know through
here these guys as well are considered type 2 guys again even though they’re
not technically transition metals they’re pretty much named the same way
they have the same ability to create basically multiple types of charges so
when we talk about those guys right here are type 2 guys have that ability to
basically create a variety of charges so it does matter in their case mm-hmm
who they are connected to in terms of the charge that’s happening but in terms
of naming is still basically the same thing we’re still going to use the whole
name of the metal the nonmetal we’ll still get that IDE at
the end of it drop a little bit of the name and put the IDE the main difference
between this and the type one is here we will use Roman numerals so we will use a Roman numeral and what
the Roman numeral basically indicates is the charge on the metal and that again
is going to be the positive charge on the metal not the total charge that you
have not how many metals that you have but it’s the actual positive charge if
you just took one of those metals out and basically what the actual charge was
on it so for example if we looked at something like
you f e Cl – so when we look at Fe which is
a metal Cl which is a nonmetal again it’s going to be an ionic compound but
it is our iron here that’s a transition metal which means because it’s a
transition metal we’re not a hundred percent sure what the actual charge is
on it but the good thing is you will always know the nonmetal with the
charges on the nonmetal and in this case chlorine is group number seven which
means as a minus one charge and there’s not one of them in this format but
there’s actually two of them in this form that gives us a grand total of
minus two and since there’s only one iron in this formula the iron would has
to be plus T to balance it out so when we go for the name is still the same
thing the whole name of the metal which is iron here we put Roman numeral two
and again the two is for a positive charge that’s there and then this
becomes chloride yeah so iron Roman numeral two chloride and really again
the two there is the charge on the metal it is needed to tell people that in this
particular case we’re talking about iron with a +2 charge and that would be
different as we maybe did as well last time if we had this example at the CL 3 and fecl3 tell us the same thing again
we have iron that’s a transition metal so we’re not sure what the charge is but
in this case we don’t have to CL minuses but we actually have 3 CL Isis which
gives us a minus 3 charge so in this case our iron would has to be +3 and
that means that the name for this guy would be iron Roman numeral 3 and again
chloride here and again the 3 is or the +3 charge that we see on the iron so
really type 1 and type 2 you’re very similar in terms of how you name it the
only distinction between them is because that metal in type 2 is a transition
metal or something like Tin lead in that area of the periodic table because they
have the ability to make multiple types of positive charge you pretty much need
to tell the person that’s looking at it hey in this case down here I’m talking
about iron with the +2 charge in this case up here I’m talking about iron with
a +3 charge any questions on type 2 and again here this is there some
examples of transition metals and their multiple charges obviously everybody
else as well has multiple charges these are our common ones they’re a little bit
outside of the area transition metals that are still named like transition
metals again a reminder that these guys are really not type 1 type 2 or I’m
sorry type 1 type 2 guys they’re type 1 ion so zinc cadmium and silver do not
need a Roman numeral next to it so they they do not need a Roman numeral so again zinc cadmium a silver those are
you gonna be paying just like type one but everybody else in the transition
metal and everybody to the right there we’re led int in our Sn I will need a
row and here again is a table from your book again we use the Roman numeral to
indicate the charge so there’s a question about nickel nickel does need a
Roman numeral nickel I can have multiple types of charges no I so let’s go back
to I just so there’s no so a little misleading here these guys here and
against from your book but these guy here and here which has sort of what’s
back sort of a fixed charge if you will on this table it actually doesn’t so for
example nickel can make plus 4 MN actually have a lot of different charges
like plus four and stuff like that so really just those three that I
highlighted over here that zinc the cadmium the silver they are the ones
that will have the fixed charges in your transition metals everybody else will
need some type of Roman numeral including Mn and also nickel and I they
will also need those Roman numerals so I don’t know I didn’t make this chart your
book did but I’m not sure why they just sort of limited it like that but those
guys definitely can make multiple types of charges about the MN and the nickel
other questions on yes so again when we put these together
type 2 just like type 1 they’re both ionic compounds which means
they’re both basically made up of a positive and negative charge so when we
put them together again the goal is to find the simplest common number that
will get them to zero in terms of their charges and again you want to do that
and the lowest sort of numbers that will do that a non-metal will not always be negative
2 in terms of discharge so when we talk about our nonmetals again in group 5
they will be minus 3 if it’s in group 6 it will be minus 2 if it is in group 7
it will be minus 1 and again what we’re talking about in terms of the nonmetal
charge it’s above the staircase here on the right where our nonmetals are so
minus 3 minus 2-u minus 1 your nonmetals can have pretty much any of those type
of charges other questions and again a little bit deceiving this
little chart that they made from your book I think they were trying to show
something just that they can have multiple types of charges they might
even have in words like you know these guys have fixed charges but again zinc
cadmium silver type-1 anything else that you see in the transition metal region
for our class and to the right of the transit trend just a metal reason I’ll
spit that out transition metal region will also need Roman numerals as well
other questions so again this chart was just kind of showing you another way
that sometimes things that have multiple charges or type two guys or name you’ll
sometimes see it kind of this old school way of naming which we will not
use in this class and they use something like Oh us and I see verses to Roman
numerals and basically the ous is the one that has a smaller positive charge
the IC is the one that has the larger positive charge so for our lecture
portion we really won’t use any of these names but you should maybe be aware of
them sometimes it will pop up in some places but definitely not lecture maybe
sometimes in lab they’ll sometimes pop up but here will strictly stick to
naming things with the Roman numerals that are type 2 compounds so remember
that if we do have the name given to us that is a type 2 sort of compound so for
example if we had copper Roman numeral 2 nitride when we do see this name and we
do see the Roman numeral that automatically should tell us that we’re
looking at something that is a transition metal so when we look at
something here it actually gives you a lot of information if we want to write
the form oh we know copper is Cu and the Roman numeral two again indicates the
actual charge on the copper so it actually will tell us right off about
there the charge nitrogen which is nitride is group number five so because
this group five we know it will have basically a minus one minus three charge
and again when we put this together just like we did with type one we want to get
it together in the simplest way to get to zero so the common number there is
six so they get this guy over here the copper the six we wouldn’t need three of
them so Cu three and they get our nitrogen to six we would need two of them
and two would be the correct form just like type one we have no charges in the
chemical formula when we write them it is simply just putting in together in
the simplest fashion to get to zero remember as well though this does not
have charges it is made up of two things that do you have charges our copper with
the plus two is our cation and our nitrogen with our minus three is our
anion we could also see in this particular case if you wanted to you the
kind of switcheroo would work if you brought the three down and you brought
the two over we end up with a three and a two which again works in a lot of
cases but not a hundred percent of the time does it work so for example if we
had PB o2 once you take a second and come up with the name of you think that
is and we’ll talk about okay so if we look at this again we see
lead which again is not a transition metal but it’s one of those ones that
are just to the right so it is named the same way what that means is we’re not
maybe sure exactly what the charge is on it so again here if we look at lead
we’re not really sure but here the oxygen which we do know is group number
six has a minus 2 charge and they ain’t get as fix for it and that means that
we’d have one and we also have two of them which gives us a minus four charge
and that means in this case the lead actually will be plus four and if we
were to name this because it is essentially name just like a transition metal this
would be led Roman numeral four again for the charge the oxygen becomes oxide
so a couple of things on here just like a type one even though there’s two here
we don’t do anything like dioxide or anything here it’s just oxide lead here
having the +4 charge this is a case where again if you kind of crossed over
and brought the two there and brought the one over there you would end up with
actually the wrong information in this case you might call it lead to oxide or
something like that and again you can see here it’s actually lead 4 so in a
lot of cases the the switch of those charges like what we have over here will
work really well but in some cases it may not always work so it’s always best
as I think we talked about last time to think about in just that simple sense of
I want to put them together so that the charges equals zero any questions on
that there so we have a few here to name so why
don’t you give it a good one let’s give it go name those guys see what you come
up with and we’ll talk about in just a second all right so let’s take a look and see
how we’re doing here so when we look at this first one here again we see Co
which is cobalt and that is a transition metal and CL is chlorine which is a
nonmetal and because cobalt is a transition metal that automatically
should tell us it can have multiple types of charges so we do want to look
at what it’s attached to and see how is minus one because this group number
seven which means there’s not one there and that formed them but three that
gives us a grand total of minus three so that means in this case the cobalt has
to be plus three to balance it out to get us a zero so we would name this
Cobalt again the whole name here we would
include Roman numeral three for the charge and the CL will just become
chloride again even though there’s three we don’t put any type of prefix in front
of it and we end up with cobalt Roman numeral three chloride looking at the
next one also we have Cu which is copper this transition metal so automatically
can have multiple charges I know that it’s bound to is group seven has a minus
one charge so to balance that out the copper here has to have a plus one
charge and what that means is we then would call it copper
Roman numeral 1 again for the charge and iodine becomes iodide you question
on those two you there and lastly here we have Sn which is tin
and tin although it is non-transition metal it’s one of those ones as we were
talking about that’s right in that region of the periodic table just to the
right of our transition metals but still or named just like they were a
transition metal so we do need to figure out the charge and here it’s attached to
Br which is group seven and that’s minus one and again we have four of
these guys we drew them all out you don’t have to if we draw them out that
gives us a minus four and that means that this guy is plus four to balance it
out and again the whole name of our metal tin Roman numeral four again for
the charge and even though there’s four of these guys it is still gonna be just
bromide at the end so tin Roman numeral four bromine any questions on any of
those guys type two so very common mistakes that most people
make what site two is they always want to for the Roman numeral I’ll use it to
say how many metals there are rather than what it should be used for which is
the actual charge on the metal the positive charge any questions on
anything we talked about today since we’re getting to the end so we did spend
today reviewing a lot of what we talked about last time so hopefully obviously on
Wednesday we’ll get into some new material whilst we get into I think some
chapter 4 so right now there’s a handout up on canvas of what we’re going through
right now so probably will be one before Wednesday
so you might want to look for it as well that will be like kind of chapter 4 is
handout that will hopefully get into some of that on Wednesday as well so a
couple of reminders here before we call it a day in terms of the lecture portion
again as we talked about the exam will be next Monday and in an
online format through canvas and again I’ll try to post up some more
information or maybe Wednesdays but we’ll talk about some more of that but
definitely will probably occur on Monday it will cover just originally what it
was gonna cover which is chapters 1 & 2 only that also means that on sapling you
should still have the homework assignments that you need to do through
sapling that’s where all the homework will be the same place as has been since
the beginning of the semester you will probably have to upload some information
in terms of your work on the exam so I could give you some partial credit just
in case you get the answer wrong but again that will most likely take place
next Monday the 30th through canvas probably be you can start it around our
normal lecture time so we probably won’t have a lecture on that day you’ll
probably just take the exam on this coming Wednesday we will continue to
lecture and go through chapter 3 and then into chapter 4 and in terms of
everything else again the lectures will occur live
Mondays and Wednesdays about 7:35 when we normally start and if for some reason
you can’t be here live or you missed it or want to hear it again at some point
they will be posted up on our canvas side either directly on our canvas site
are a link to go watch it probably on YouTube or something like that but they
will be up there just a note on that it does take a little bit of time to sort
of process the video and get it up there so my goal is hopefully by the next day
at the latest sometime you know that video of the live recording will be up
there so unfortunate it’s not instantaneous but it does take a little
bit of time to get those guys process so it will be up there and again you’ll be
able to find those links and you’ll be able to find those links on the canvas
site the question was where is our exam is it on canvas at this moment I believe
the tests will be run through canvas so you won’t have to log on to to zoom to
do it you just log on to the canvas site and take it on Monday during it there
will be a specific time window when the tests will be available for you to take
and when you take it there will also be probably a time limit as to how long you
can take the test so just keep that in mind again we’ll have more information
but as soon as you start to test you’ll have probably usually they put up like a
little counter timer you’ll have a certain amount of time to complete the
test just like you would in class if we took it a cut in person any other
questions on anything else and I guess the last reminder would be that if you
do have lab today on Monday I believe dr. Tyler is put up a link for you to
sort of meet with her for lab period she may talk about some soft regarding lab
and then I believe Wednesday people that if you have lab on Wednesday technically
there’s a separate link that she should follow on Wednesday to go to lab and and
sort of meet with her and just like we’re doing right now so she could talk
about the lab and what you need to do so although we’re sort of doing it online
just to keep everybody sort of straight in terms of not everybody all at once in
terms of the lab period if you’re on Monday you should still go to the Monday
if you’re on Wednesday you should still see the Wednesday if for some reason you
can’t see and either those times you definitely shouldn’t reach out to dr.
Tyler and give her and let her know and then she’ll make some arrangements for
you all right any questions on anything else all right so this is again how
lectures are going to be hopefully wasn’t too bad and looks like we had a
good crowd show up which is good other than that I’m gonna pretty much stop
this lecture at this point have a good rest of your day I’ll see
everybody back here Wednesday about 7:35 thank you you have a nice one too
have a good day already don’t forget to go to lab if you have it today you’re welcome thank you everybody
have a good day

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